A halin yanzu kuna kallo Menene Nodes?

Menene Node?

Karatun lokaci: 5 minti

Node yana da ma'anoni daban-daban dangane da mahallin sa.

A cikin duniyar cibiyoyin sadarwar, hanyoyin sadarwar sadarwa ko da kwamfutoci, nodes suna da halaye da aka fayyace da kyau: suna iya zama fanni rarrabawa ko ƙarshen hanyar sadarwa. Zamu iya cewa gabaɗaya cewa kumburi na'urar sadarwa ce ta zahiri. Don kar a rasa komai, duk da haka, akwai wasu takamaiman shari'oi waɗanda a cikin su ya zama dole a yi amfani da nodes masu amfani.

Cazoo, yi magana akan sha!

Yana da kyau. Cibiyar sadarwar yanar gizo wuri ne wanda za'a iya ƙirƙirar saƙo, karɓa ko watsa shi. Kamar yadda aka riga aka ambata, akwai nau'ikan Bitcoin Nodes daban-daban: cikakkun nodes, super nodes, mahaɗan node da abokan ciniki na SPV.

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Nananan Bitcoin

Inda aka tsara Blockchain a matsayin tsari rarraba, cibiyar sadarwar node tana ba da damar amfani da Bitcoin azaman tsabar tsaran takwarorin-aboki (P2P) na dijital, wanda ba za a iya fahimta ba kuma ba shi da ma'ana, wato, ba tare da dole sai an kasance masu shiga tsakani ba don tabbatar da ciniki, musaya, ma'amaloli tsakanin masu amfani.

I node block dole ne su yi aiki azaman hanyar sadarwa kuma dole ne su iya samun wasu kaddarorin, don su iya aiwatar da wasu ayyuka. Duk wani na'ura wanda ke haɗuwa da haɗin Bitcoin, kamar kwamfuta, za a iya la'akari da ƙulli, tunda dukkan node suna hade a cikin toshewar. Me wadannan kullin zasu yi? Suna sadarwa. Suna watsa bayanai game da ma'amaloli da toshe hanyoyin sadarwar komputa da aka rarraba tare da ladabi na aboki-da-tsara na Bitcoin. Ido: akwai nau'ikan nodes Bitcoin daban-daban.

Cikakken Nodes

Cikakkun nodes su ne waɗancan ƙwayoyin waɗanda ke ba da tsaro ga Bitcoin a hankali kuma suna tallafawa tsarinta: suna da mahimmanci don aiki ga duk hanyar sadarwa. Wataƙila kun riga kun karanta su a wani wuri kuma kun ga an kira su cikakken ingantaccen node: suna kiransu hakane saboda shiga cikin aikin tabbatar da ma'amaloli da makullin bisa ka'idojin da aka sanya ta yarda na tsarin. Cikakkun nodes na iya watsa sabbin ma'amaloli da sababbin toshe zuwa toshewar.

A yadda aka saba dole ne cikakken kumburi ya zazzage kwafin dukkanin toshewar, tare da dukkan tubalan da ma'amalarsa (koda kuwa ba larurar da ake buƙata ba da za a ɗauka a matsayin cikakken kumburi - ko da wani yanki na toshewar ana iya sauke shi).
Za'a iya saita cikakkiyar kumburi ta Bitcoin bayan aiwatar da software daban-daban, inda ake kiran mafi sanannun duka Bitcoin Core (anan mahadar github din sa). Ba na kowa bane! Anan akwai mafi ƙarancin, amma mafi ƙarancin, mafi ƙarancin buƙatu don zama cikakken Core Core:

  • Tebur ko kwamfutar tafi-da-gidanka tare da ɗayan kwanan nan na Windows, Mac OS X, ko Linux.
  • 200GB na sararin faifai kyauta.
  • 2GB na ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya (RAM).
  • Babban haɗin intanet tare da loda akalla 50 kB / s.
  • Haɗin mara iyaka ko tare da iyakokin loda mai girma. Ko kuma tabbatar cewa a cikin tsarin kuɗin kuɗin ku, idan kun yi ɗumbin zafi, an haɗa giga 200 a kowane wata a loda kuma 20 a cikin ƙasa.
  • Cikakken kumburin dole ne ya iya aiki na aƙalla rubu'in rana (awa 6) amma ana matukar godiya cewa koyaushe yana aiki, 24 a rana.

Dubunnan masu ba da gudummawa daban-daban har ma da ƙungiyoyi suna aiki tuƙuru don zama cikakkun nodes kuma don haka su sami damar taimakawa yanayin yanayin Bitcoin. Kamar yadda yake a yau (Mayu 2021) muna ƙidaya 9615 node jama'a masu aiki a cikin hanyar sadarwar Bitcoin. Kuma kawai muna magana ne game da nodes ɗin jama'a, wato, bayyane da samfuran Bitcoin - waɗanda ana kiransu sauraron node

Takaitawa game da nodes ɗin jama'a na cibiyar sadarwar Bitcoin

Ee Sherlock, akwai kuma marasa sauraron node, kullin ɓoye da mara ganuwa Waɗannan suna ɓoye a bayan Tacewar zaɓi don aiki, ta amfani da ladabi na sirri kamar Tor, ko, har ma da sauƙi da aminci, ba a tsara su don karɓar haɗi ba.

Nodes na Sauraro (Super Nodes)

Un kumburi mai sauraro o super kumburi cikakken kumburi ne wanda yake bayyane a bayyane: yana sadarwa tare da wasu node waɗanda suke son magana dashi kuma suna musayar bayanai. Don haka yayi amfani da super node duka a gadar sadarwa Che tushen bayanai: babban kumburi ne sake rarrabawa.

Idan kuna son zama babban abin dogaro, dole ne ya zama kuna aiki koyaushe, awanni 24 a rana, don ku sami damar watsa ambaliyar haɗi: dole ne a tattara tarihin toshewa, dole ne a yi rijistar duk ma'amaloli tare da bayanan su a kan dukkan kumburi a ko'ina cikin duniya. Ya tafi ba tare da faɗi cewa har ma da ƙananan mutane ba: ana buƙatar ikon sarrafa kwamfuta, da ingantaccen haɗin intanet.

Odesananan Nodes

Lokacin hakar ma'adinai ya wuce. Kar a fara ragargazawa. A yau, don shiga cikin gasa a cikin aikin hakar ma'adinai na Bitcoin, yana da mahimmanci don saka hannun jari a cikin shirye-shirye na musamman da kayan aiki, waɗanda ke gudana a layi ɗaya tare da Bitcoin Core don ƙoƙarin haƙo ma'adanan. Mai hakar ma'adinai, ko mutumin da ke amfani da waɗannan kwamfutocin masu ƙarfi, na iya yanke shawarar yin aiki shi kaɗai (mai hakar ma'adinai kawai) ko a rukuni (mai hakar gwal). 

Yayinda kerkeci, kadai masu hakar gwal wadanda suka roki kakarsu su iya amfani da cellar na wani dan lokaci su yi komai da kwamfutoci, yayin da suke amfani da kwafinsu da aka zazzage na cikin gida na toshewa, wadanda ke aikin gwal a wuraren waha, a wuraren waha. na masu hakar gwal, da kyau suna aiki tare, kuma kowannensu yana ba da gudummawar albarkatunsa (ƙarfin hashpower). A cikin wurin haƙar ma'adinai haƙƙin mai kula da wurin ne ya kiyaye cikakken kumburi: shi ne cikakken kumburi mai hakar ma'adinai.

Hur ko abokin ciniki na SPV

Har ila yau, an san shi da abokan ciniki mai sauƙaƙe (SPV), abokan ciniki hur suna amfani da hanyar sadarwar Bitcoin amma basa aiki azaman cikakken kumburi. Abokan ciniki na SPV sabili da haka ba sa ba da gudummawa ga tsaron hanyar sadarwa: ba a buƙatar su sami kwafin toshewa ba, kuma ba a taɓa tambayar su a cikin tsarin tabbatar da ma'amala da tabbatarwa ba.

Abokin ciniki na SPV yana da aiki na asali: yana bawa kowane mai amfani damar bincika ko an saka wasu ma'amaloli a cikin toshe, ba tare da sauke duk bayanan toshe ba. Ta yaya suke yin hakan? Suna neman wasu bayanai daga wasu cikakkun nodes (manyan nodes). Abokan ciniki masu nauyi sunyi aiki kamar ƙarshen bayani kuma ana amfani da su da walat daban-daban (wallets) don adana abubuwan da ake kira cryptocurrencies.

Abokin ciniki vs Nuts Nodes

Mahimmanci, kiyaye cikakken kumburi ya sha bamban da kiyaye cikakken kumburin ma'adinai. Yayinda masu hakar ma'adinai dole ne su sanya kuɗi da albarkatu don siye da amfani da kayan aiki mai tsada da software (ku tuna yadda mutane ke gunaguni game da wutar lantarki da ake amfani da shi don haƙar bitcoins), kowa na iya kula da cikakkiyar kumburi. Tabbas, ba tare da cikakken ingancin kumburi ba, mai hakar ma'adinai ba zai iya yin komai ba: kafin ƙoƙarin haƙa maɓalli, mai hakar ma'adinai dole ne ya karɓi lafiya daga cikakken kumburi, wanda ke tabbatarwa da kuma tabbatar da ma'amaloli masu jiran aiki. Don haka to mai hakar ma'adinan na iya ƙirƙirar toshe wanda aka yi amfani da shi don karɓar wannan bayanin (tare da rukuni na ma'amaloli) kuma yana ƙoƙari ya haƙƙaƙen toshe ɗin. Anan ana shirin sabunta toshewar: idan mai hakar gwal ya sami nasarar samun ingantaccen bayani game da tolan yanzu za'a iya yada shi zuwa sauran toshewar kuma cikakkun nodes sun tabbatar da ingancin sa. Daga qarshe, dokokin yarda sun tabbatar kuma an tabbatar dasu ta hanyar sadarwar da aka rarraba na ingancin nodes, ba daga masu hakar ma'adinai ba

ƙarshe

Hanyoyin Bitcoin suna cikin sadarwa tare da juna ta hanyar yarjejeniyar P2P Bitcoin kuma ta hanyar sadarwa da juna koyaushe, suna bada tabbacin ingancin tsarin. Me za'ayi idan akwai wani kullin da baya nuna halin kirki, wanda yake aikata rashin gaskiya, wannan mummunan aiki ne, wanda yake kokarin yada labaran da basu dace ba? A cikin toshewa, bayanai suna gudana: waccan kumburi ana gane shi da sauri ta hanyar ƙwararrun masu gaskiya kuma ana cire shi da sauri daga hanyar sadarwar.

Nawa zan samu ta hanyar riƙe cikakken kumburi mai inganci ?? '?

A cazoo! Babu wani lada na tattalin arziki da ake bayarwa: amintacce ne na masu amfani ya ƙaddara shi, yana samar da kwanciyar hankali, tsaro, sirri ga masu amfani. Cikakkun nodes ne ainihin alkalan wasa: suna tabbatar da cewa ana bin dokoki. Suna kare toshewa daga hare-hare da yaudara (kamar su ciyarwa biyu) kuma ba lallai bane su amince da wani.