Ngoku ujonge iMbali yeBlockchain

Imbali yeBlockchain

Ixesha lokufunda: 3 imizuzu

Itekhnoloji exhasa ilizwe le-imali yedatha yaziwa njengehlabathi blockchain.
Ibhloko ye blockchain ivumela umsebenzisi ngamnye kwinethiwekhi ukufikelela kwimvumelwano ngaphandle kokuthembana. Kubonakala kulungile ukuxelela ukuba yeyiphi na imbali ye-blockchain, ngamafutshane.

Iintsuku zokuqala

Umbono emva kwetekhnoloji ye-blockchain wachazwa kude kwangowe-1991, xa abaphandi UStuart Haber kunye noW. Scott Stornetta bazise isisombululo esisebenzayo sokumakisha amaxwebhu edijithali ukuze kungabikho mva okanye kuphazanyiswe.

UStuart Haber kunye noW. Scott Stornetta

Inkqubo esetyenzisiweyo ikhonkco elikhuselekileyo lokugcina imifanekiso kwiibhloko ukugcina amaxwebhu aphawulwe ngo simiswe kwaye ngo-1992 le projekthi yahlaziywa kunye nemithi yeMerkle, eyenza ukuba isebenze ngakumbi kwaye ikuvumela ukuba uqokelele amaxwebhu amaninzi kwibhloko enye. Nangona le yabaphandi babini yayingumzamo omkhulu, obu buchwephesha bahlala bungasetyenziswa kwaye ipatent yaphela ngo-2004, kwiminyaka emine phambi kokuzalwa kweBitcoin.

Ubungqina boMsebenzi obunokuphinda busebenze

Ngo-2004, isazinzulu sekhompyuter kunye nomlweli we-crypto uHal Finney (Harold Thomas Finney II) wazisa inkqubo ebizwa ngokuba yi-RPoW, Reusable Proof Of Work. Inkqubo yasebenza ngokufumana ithokheni engatshintshiyo okanye "ubungqina bomsebenzi" obungashukumiyo beHashcash kwaye ngokubuyisela idale umqondiso osayiniweyo wase RSA onokudluliselwa komnye umntu uye komnye.

I-RPoW isombulule ingxaki yokuchitha kabini ngokugcina ubunini beethokheni ezibhalisiweyo kwiserver ethembekileyo, eyilelwe ukuvumela abasebenzisi kwihlabathi liphela ukuba baqinisekise ukuchaneka kwayo kunye nokuthembeka ngexesha lokwenyani.

Singayithathela ingqalelo i-RPoW njengeprototype yokuqala kunye nenyathelo lokuqala elibalulekileyo kwimbali ye-cryptocurrensets.

Inethiwekhi yeBitcoin

Ekupheleni kuka-2008, omnye wakhululwa mhlophe, iphepha lophando, elazisa inkqubo yoontanga-mali-mali yokwabelana ngemali-ebizwa ngokuba yi-Bitcoin. Yayithunyelwa kuluhlu lwe-imeyile ebhalwe ngokufihlakeleyo ngumntu okanye iqela lisebenzisa i-alias ye Satoshi Nakamoto.

Le projekthi ibisekwe kubungqina bomsebenzi we-Hashcash algorithm, kodwa endaweni yokusebenzisa amandla e-computational njenge-RPoW, iBitcoin ukhuselo oluphindwe kabini lokubonelela ngenkxaso-mali yokulandela nokuqinisekisa ukuthengiselana. Ngamazwi alula, I-Bitcoins "zimbiwa" ngomvuzo usebenzisa indlela yokusebenza-ubungqina bomgodi ngamnye emva koko iqinisekiswe ziindawo uthungelwano olusemthethweni.

I-Bitcoin yazalwa ngoJanuwari 3, 2009.

Ibhloko yokuqala yeBitcoin yachithwa nguSatoshi Nakamoto, ngomvuzo we-50 Bitcoins. Umamkeli wokuqala weBitcoin yayinguHal Finney, owamkela iBitcoins ezili-10 ezivela kuSatoshi Nakamoto kwintengiselwano yokuqala yeBitcoin ngoJanuwari 12, 2009.

Inethiwekhi ye-Ethereum

Kwi-2013, Vitalik Buterin, Umdwelisi weenkqubo nomseki-mbumbano wemagazini yeBitcoin, wathi iBitcoin yayiswele kakhulu ulwimi lokubhala (ukwenza iikhowudi, ukwakha ikhowudi) ukwakha Ukusasazwa kwezicelo. Ukusilela ukufumana ukuvumelana koluntu, uVitalik waqala uphuhliso lweqonga lekhompyuter elisasazwa nge-blockchain, walibiza ngokuba yi-Ethereum. Njengoko wathembisayo, le nethiwekhi intsha yayinendawo yokubhala ngaphakathi kuyo ebizwa ngokuba Iikhontrakthi zeSmart.

Izivumelwano zeSmart ziinkqubo okanye izikripthi ezihanjiswa zenziwe kwi-Ethereum blockchain, kwaye zinokusetyenziselwa ukwenza intengiselwano ukuba iimeko ezithile ziyafezekiswa. Iikhontrakthi ze-Smart zibhalwe kwiilwimi ezithile zenkqubo kwaye zaqulunqwa kwi-bytecode, ethi i-Turing-igqibe (okanye iTuring-elinganayo) umatshini obizwa ngokuba yi-Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) emva koko unokufunda nokwenza.

Abaphuhlisi, ukubetha kwentliziyo kwale blockchain, banakho ukwenza kunye nokupapasha usetyenziso oluqhutywa ngaphakathi kwe-Ethereum blockchain. Ezi zicelo zihlala zibizwa I-DApps (Izicelo ezisasazekileyo) kwaye zinokuba neefom ezahlukileyo kakhulu komnye komnye, njengeeapps kwifowuni yethu: usetyenziso lweendaba zosasazo, usetyenziso lokungcakaza kunye nokusetyenziswa kwemali yokutshintshiselana.

Imali ye-Ethereum ibizwa ngokuba yi-Ether (ETH). Inokudluliselwa phakathi kweeakhawunti kwaye isetyenziselwa ukuhlawula iikhomishini zamandla ekhompyuter asetyenziswayo xa kuqhutywa iikhontrakthi ezifanelekileyo.

Itekhnoloji yeBlockchain iya isiba liziko lokuqwalaselwa, itsala ingqalelo enkulu kwesiqhelo, kwaye sele isetyenziswa kwizicelo ezahlukeneyo, ingaphelelanga kwii-cryptocurrensets.