Okwamanje ubheka Ayini Ama-Nodes?

Ayini amaNode?

Isikhathi sokufunda: 5 imizuzu

I-node inencazelo ehlukile ngokususelwa kumongo wayo.

Emhlabeni wamanethiwekhi, amanethiwekhi okuxhumana ngocingo noma amakhompyutha, ama-node anezici ezichazwe kahle: angaba yindawo yokwaba kabusha noma indawo yokugcina yokuxhumana. Singasho ngokujwayelekile lokho i-node iyidivayisi yenethiwekhi ebonakalayo. Ukuze ungaphuthelwa yilutho, noma kunjalo, kukhona namanye amacala athile lapho kudingeka khona ukusebenzisa ama-node abonakalayo.

Cazoo, khuluma ngokuphuza!

Kuyahamba bon. I-node yenethiwekhi iphuzu lapho kungadalwa khona, kutholakale noma kuthunyelwe umyalezo. Njengoba sekushiwo, kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene ze-Bitcoin Node: ama-node agcwele, ama-super node, ama-minode node kanye namakhasimende we-SPV.

Inkomba

Izindawo ze-Bitcoin

Lapho iBlockchain yakhelwe njengohlelo kwasatshalaliswa, inethiwekhi yama-node ivumela iBitcoin ukuthi isetshenziswe njengemali esezingeni eliphansi yontanga (P2P), engabekezeleleki futhi enikezwe amandla, okungukuthi, ngaphandle kokuthi kudingeke ukuthi kube khona abaxhumanisi ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuhweba, ukushintshaniswa, ukuthengiselana phakathi kwabasebenzisi.

I ama-blockchain node ngakho-ke kumele basebenze njengendawo yokuxhumana futhi bakwazi ukuba nezinto ezithile, ukuze bakwazi ukwenza imisebenzi ethile. Noma iyiphi idivayisi exhuma kusixhumi esibonakalayo seBitcoin, njengekhompyutha, kungabhekwa njengefindo, ngoba wonke ama-node axhunyiwe ngaphakathi kwe-blockchain. Angenzani la mafindo? Bayaxhumana. Badlulisa imininingwane mayelana nokuthengiselana kanye namabhulokhi wenethiwekhi yekhompiyutha yayo esatshalaliswa nge-Bitcoin's peer-to-peer protocol. Iso: kunezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zama-Bitcoin node.

AmaNode agcwele

Ama-node agcwele lawo ma-node anikeza ngokuphepha i-Bitcoin futhi asekele ukwakheka kwawo: abalulekile ekusebenzeni kwayo yonke inethiwekhi. Mhlawumbe usuvele uzifunde kwenye indawo futhi wazibona zibizwa izindawo eziqinisekisa ngokugcwele: bababiza kanjalo ngoba iqhaza kwinqubo yokuqinisekisa ukuthengiselana nokukhiya ngokwemithetho ebekwe ngu imvume wohlelo. Ama-node agcwele angadlulisa ukuthengiselana okusha namabhulokhi amasha ku-blockchain.

Imvamisa i-node ephelele kufanele ilande ikhophi yayo yonke i-blockchain, enawo wonke amabhlogo ayo nokuthengiselana (noma ngabe kungesona isidingo esidingekayo ukubhekwa njengendawo ephelele - ungalanda nengxenye eyodwa ye-blockchain).
I-node egcwele yeBitcoin ingasethwa ngokulandela ukuqaliswa okuningi kwesoftware, lapho kubizwa khona konke okwaziwa kakhulu Bitcoin Core (nasi isixhumanisi se-github yakhe). Akufanele wonke umuntu! Nanka ubuncane, kepha ubuncane, izidingo ezincane zokuba i-node ephelele ye-Bitcoin Core:

  • Ideskithophu noma ilaptop enenguqulo yakamuva ye-Windows, Mac OS X, noma i-Linux.
  • I-200GB yesikhala sediski samahhala.
  • 2GB yememori (RAM).
  • Ukuxhumeka kwe-inthanethi okusheshayo nokulayishwe okungenani ama-50 kB / s.
  • Ukuxhumeka okungenamkhawulo noma ngemikhawulo ephezulu yokulayisha. Noma qiniseka ukuthi ohlelweni lwakho lwentela, uma wenza i-hotspot, i-200 giga ngenyanga ekulayishweni ne-20 ku-downlaod ifakiwe.
  • I-node ephelele kufanele ikwazi ukusebenza okungenani ikota yosuku (amahora we-6) kepha kuyancomeka kakhulu ukuthi ihlala isebenza, amahora angama-24 ngosuku.

Izinkulungwane zamavolontiya ahlukene ngisho nezinhlangano zisebenza kanzima ukuze zibe yizindawo ezigcwele futhi ngenxa yalokho zikwazi ukusiza uhlelo lwe-Bitcoin ecosystem. Kusukela namhlanje (Meyi 2021) siyabala Izindawo zomphakathi ezisebenzayo ezingama-9615 kunethiwekhi yeBitcoin. Futhi sikhuluma nje ngezindawo zomphakathi, okungukuthi, ama-Bitcoin node abonakalayo futhi afinyelelekayo - abizwa nangokuthi izindawo zokulalela

Isifinyezo sezindawo zomphakathi zenethiwekhi yeBitcoin

Yebo Sherlock, kukhona futhi ama-node angalaleli, amafindo afihliwe futhi angabonakali. Lezi zicasha ngemuva kwe-firewall ukuze zisebenze, zisebenzisa izivumelwano zobumfihlo ezifana ne-Tor, noma, noma zilula futhi zivikeleke kakhulu, azilungiselelwe ukuthola ukuxhumana.

Izindawo Zokulalela (Ama-Super Node)

Un i-node yokulalela o indawo engeyinhle iyinodi egcwele ebonakalayo esidlangalaleni: ixhumana namanye ama-node afuna ukukhuluma nayo futhi anikeze imininingwane. Kusetshenziswe i-super node ngakho kokubili ibhuloho lokuxhumana che umthombo wedatha: i-super node iyi- kabusha iphuzu.

Uma ufuna ukuba yi-super node ethembekile, kufanele uhlale usebenza, amahora angama-24 ngosuku, ukuze ukwazi ukudlulisa isikhukhula sokuxhuma: umlando we-blockchain kufanele ubhalwe phansi, konke okwenziwayo kufanele kurekhodwe nemininingwane yabo kuwo wonke ama-node emhlabeni jikelele. Akusho ukuthi kungokwabantu abambalwa: kudingeka amandla wekhompyutha, kanye nokuxhumeka okungcono kwe-inthanethi.

Ama-Minodi Node

Isikhathi semayini sesidlulile. Ungaqali ukubukela phansi. Namuhla, ukuze ubambe iqhaza ngokuncintisana kwinqubo yezimayini zeBitcoin, kubalulekile ukuthi utshale imali ezinhlelweni ezikhethekile kanye nasehardware, esebenza ngokufana neBitcoin Core ukuzama ukuvimba amabhulokhi. Umvukuzi, noma umuntu osebenzisa lamakhompyutha anamandla, anganquma ukusebenza yedwa (umvukuzi kuphela) noma ngamaqembu (umvukuzi wephuli). 

Ngenkathi kuyizimpisi ezizodwa, abavukuzi kuphela abacela ugogo wabo ukuthi bakwazi ukusebenzisa isela isikhathi esithile ukwenza izinto ngamakhompyutha, ngenkathi besebenzisa ikhophi yabo elandwe endaweni ye-blockchain, labo abasebenza emachibini, kumachibi okubhukuda yabasebenzi basezimayini, basebenza ngokubambisana, futhi ngamunye unikela ngezinsizakusebenza zakhe (i-hashpower). Echibini lezimayini kungumsebenzi womphathi wamachibi kuphela ukugcina indawo ephelele: uyi- umvukuzi we-node ogcwele.

Iklayenti elingasindi noma le-SPV

Eyaziwa nangokuthi amaklayenti we-Simplified Payment Verification (SPV), amaklayenti engasindi basebenzisa inethiwekhi yeBitcoin kepha abenzi njengendawo ephelele. Ngakho-ke amaklayenti e-SPV awanikeli ekuphepheni kwenethiwekhi: akudingeki ukuthi babe nekhophi ye-blockchain, futhi abaze babuzwe kwinqubo yokuqinisekisa ukuthengiselana kanye nenqubo yokuqinisekisa.

Iklayenti le-SPV linomsebenzi oyisisekelo: livumela noma yimuphi umsebenzisi ukuthi abheke ukuthi ukuthengiselana okuthile kufakiwe yini noma cha kubhlokhi, ngaphandle kokulanda yonke idatha yebhulokhi. Bakwenza kanjani lokhu? Bacela imininingwane ethile kusuka kwezinye izindawo ezigcwele (ama-super node). Amaklayenti angasindi enza njenge indawo yokugcina ukuxhumana futhi isetshenziswa yizikhwama ezahlukahlukene (wallets) ukugcina ama-cryptocurrensets.

Iklayenti vs Izimayini Izindawo

Okubalulekile, ukugcina i-node ephelele kuhluke kakhulu ekugcineni i-node ephelele yezimayini. Ngenkathi abavukuzi kufanele batshale imali nezinsizakusebenza ukuthenga nokusebenzisa i-Hardware ne-software ebiza kakhulu (khumbula ukuthi abantu bakhala kangakanani ngogesi osetshenziselwa ukumba ama-bitcoins), noma ngubani angakwazi ukugcina inodi ephelele yokuqinisekisa. Ngempela, ngaphandle kwe-node ephelele yokuqinisekisa, umvukuzi akakwazi ukwenza lutho: ngaphambi kokuzama ukuvimba ibhulokhi, umvukuzi kufanele athole ok kusuka endaweni ephelele, eqinisekisa futhi iqinisekise ukuthengiselana okulindile. Ngakho-ke umvukuzi angakha ibhulokhi esetshenziselwe ukusingathwa kwalolo lwazi (neqembu lokuthengiselana) futhi azame ukumayini ibhulokhi. Lapha i-blockchain isizovuselelwa futhi: uma umvukuzi akwazi ukuthola isixazululo esivumelekile sebhulokhi manje ingadluliselwa kuyo yonke i-blockchain futhi izindawo ezigcwele ziqinisekise ukusebenza kwayo. Ekugcineni, imithetho yemvume inqunywa futhi iqinisekiswe yinethiwekhi esatshalalisiwe ye- kuqinisekiswa izindawo, hhayi kusuka kubavukuzi.

isiphetho

Ama-node weBitcoin axhumene ngomthetho olandelwayo we-P2P Bitcoin futhi ngokuxhumana njalo njalo, aqinisekisa ubuqotho bohlelo. Kuthiwani uma kukhona ifindo elingaziphathi kahle, elenza ngokungathembeki, elinobudlova, elizama ukusabalalisa imininingwane engalungile? Kuma-blockchains, ukugeleza kolwazi: leyo node yaziwa masisha ngamanothi aqotho futhi inqanyulwa ngokushesha kunethiwekhi.

Ngingathola malini ngokugcina i-node esebenza ngokugcwele? '?

I-cazoo! Ayikho imivuzo yezomnotho enikezwayo: kunqunywa ukuthembela kwabasebenzisi, kunikeza ukuthula kwengqondo, ukuphepha, ubumfihlo kubasebenzisi. Ama-node agcwele abapempe bemidlalo yangempela: baqinisekisa ukuthi imithetho iyalandelwa. Bavikela i-blockchain ekuhlaselweni nasekukhwabaniseni (njenge ukusebenzisa imali kabili) futhi akudingeki ukuthi bathembe omunye umuntu.