Njengamanje ubuka Kusho ukuthini ukumba ama-cryptocurrencies kanye nokuthi inqubo yezimayini isebenza kanjani

Kusho ukuthini ukufaka izimayini ze-cryptocurrensets nokuthi inqubo yezimayini isebenza kanjani

Isikhathi sokufunda: 3 imizuzu

Ama-cryptocurrensets ezimayini, abizwa nangokuthi yezimayini yama-cryptocurrensets, yileyo nqubo lapho ukuthengiselana phakathi kwabasebenzisi kuqinisekiswa futhi kwengezwe kwirejista, kulelojaja enkulu, ngokuphelele yomphakathi, okuyi blockchain.

Il inqubo yezimayini kungenye yezinto ezibalulekile ezivumelayo

  • Ama-cryptocurrensets asebenza njengenethiwekhi yontanga, ngaphandle kwesidingo segunya lesithathu eliphakathi
  • kuma-cryptocurrensets amasha azalwe

I-Bitcoin yisibonelo esithandwa kakhulu futhi esisungulwe semali engamanani okugcina imali engabanjwa, kanye ne Izimayini zeBitcoin kusekelwe ku-algorithm yokuvumelana ebizwa Ubufakazi bomsebenzi.

Futhi akuwona wonke ama-cryptocurrensets angatholwa. Manje ake sizame ukuqonda, ngokombono wezobuchwepheshe, ukuthi kusho ukuthini ukukhipha ama-cryptocurrensets nokuthi inqubo yezimayini isebenza kanjani.

Kwenzekani ngesikhathi senqubo yezimayini?

Umvukuzi uyisimo kwinethiwekhi eqoqa ukuthengiselana futhi ikuhlele ngamabhulokhi.

Noma nini lapho kwenziwa ukuthengiselana, wonke umuntu ama-node wenethiwekhi bayazamukela futhi baqinisekise ukuba semthethweni kwazo. Ama-node asebenza kahle kakhulu emayini abese eqoqa lokhu kuthengiselana echibini lememori bese eqala ukukuhlanganisela kubhulokhi (lokhu kubizwa ngokuthi yi ikhandidethi lekhandidethi).

Into yokuqala eyenziwa umvukuzi ukwenza ukwengeza ukuthengiselana lapho uthumela khona umvuzo wezimayini (block umvuzo), bese uqala ukumba izimayini: into yokuqala eyenzeka kubhlokhi lapho kumbiwe ukuthi beza i-hashate ngakunye okwenziwe kuthathwe echibini lememori. Umsebenzi okwenziwa ngawo umvukuzi ubizwa ngokuthiwa ukuthengiselana kwe-coinbase, futhi kungukuthengiselana lapho izinhlamvu zemali zenziwa "ngaphandle komoya omncane". Ezimweni eziningi, ukuthengiselana kwe-coinbase kungukuthengiselana kokuqala okurekhodwa kubhulokhi entsha.

Inhlangano esihlahleni iMerkle

Ngokushesha nje lapho kuthengiselana ngakunye sekuhlaziyiwe, ama-hashes ahlelwa aba yi-Merkle Tree, eyakhiwa ngokufanisa ama-hashes wokuthengiselana okubili ngakabili nokuwahlaziya. Imiphumela ibuye ihlelwe ibe ngamabili ngazimbili bese ibekwa kwesinye isikhathi, njalonjalo kaninginingi, ize ifike “esiqongweni sesihlahla”. Phezulu kwesihlahla kubizwa nangokuthi impande hashi (noma impande yeMerkle) futhi ngokuyisisekelo i-hash eyodwa emele wonke ama-hashes wangaphambilini abesetshenziselwa ukuyikhiqiza.

Impande hashi kanye ne-hash yebhulokhi langaphambilini kanye nenombolo engahleliwe ebizwa nenxusa bese ifakwa kusihloko se-block. Unhlokweni webhlokhi bese ushesha ukukhiqiza umphumela osuselwa kulezi zinto (i-hashi yempande, i-hash yebhulokhi langaphambilini ne-nonce) kanye neminye imingcele. Okukhiphayo okukhishwayo yi-hashi yebhlokhi futhi kuzosebenza njengokokuhlonza kwebhulokhi esanda kukhiqizwa (ibhlokhethi lekhandidethi).
Ukuze kuthathwe njengokuvumelekile, okukhiphayo (i-hashi yebhlokhi) kufanele kube ngaphansi kwenani elithile eliqondiwe elinqunywa umthetho olandelwayo: i-hash yebhlokhi kufanele iqale ngenombolo ethile yamaqanda.

Ukubamba ubunzima

Il inani eliqondisiwe - obeye aziwe njengo ubunzima obunzima (ubunzima be-hashing) - ilungiswa njalo yi-protocol, iqinisekisa ukuthi izinga lokwakhiwa kwamabhulokhi amasha lihlala likhona njalo futhi ngokulingana nenani lamandla we-hashing anikezelwe inethiwekhi.

Njalo lapho abavukuzi abasha bejoyina inethiwekhi futhi nomncintiswano uyanda ubunzima be-hashing buzokhula, ukuvimbela isikhathi esimaphakathi se-block ekunciphiseni. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma abavukuzi benquma ukushiya inethiwekhi, ubunzima be-hashing buzokwehla, kugcinwe isikhathi se-block sihlala noma ngabe kunamandla amancane wekhompyutha anikezelwe inethiwekhi.

Inqubo yezimayini idinga ukuthi abavukuzi baqhubeke nokufaka unhlokweni we-block kaninginingi, bezulazula nge-nonce kuze kube yilapho umvukuzi wenethiwekhi ekugcineni ekhiqiza i-block hash evumelekile. Lapho kutholakala i-hash evumelekile i-node yomsunguli idlulisela ibhulokhi kunethiwekhi. Wonke amanye ama-node azobheka ukuthi ngabe i-hash isebenza yini futhi uma kunjalo, bazofaka ibhulokhi kwikhophi yabo ye-blockchain bese beqhubeka nokukhipha ibhulokhi elilandelayo.
Sekwenzekile futhi kwesinye isikhathi kuyenzeka ukuthi abavukuzi ababili bathumele ibhlokhi evumelekile ngasikhathi sinye, futhi inethiwekhi yazithola inamabhulokhi amabili ancintisanayo. Abavukuzi baqala ukumba ibhulokhi elandelayo ngokuya ngebhulokhi abayithole kuqala. Ukuncintisana phakathi kwalawa mabhulokhi kuzoqhubeka kuze kukhishwe ibhulokhi elandelayo ngokuya ngamabhulokhi athile ancintisanayo. Ibhulokhi eyehlisiwe ibizwa nge- intandane o ibhulokhi elidala. Abavukuzi baleli bhulokhi bazobuyela emayini i-block chain ewinile.

Ichibi labavukuzi

Ngenkathi umklomelo we-block unikezwa umvukuzi oqala ukuthola i-hash evumelekile, amathuba okuthola i-hash alawulwa yifomula elula: ilingana nengxenye yamandla okuphuma ngokuphelele kunethiwekhi. Abavukuzi abanamaphesenti amancane wamandla ezimayini banethuba elincane kakhulu lokuthola ibhulokhi elandelayo bebodwa. THE ichibi lezimayini zenzelwe ukuxazulula le nkinga. Kusho ukuhlanganisa izinsizakusebenza zabavukuzi, ababelana ngamandla abo okucubungula kunethiwekhi, ukwahlukanisa ngokulinganayo umvuzo kuwo wonke amalungu echibi, ngokuya ngenani lomsebenzi abawufakayo ethubeni lokuthola ibhlokhi.